Child Labour occurs when children are forced to take up work at an age they need to study and enjoy the phase of innocence. Child Labour results in the loss of childhood and escalates the exploitation of youngsters in various forms.
India faces situations where children are forced to figure under adverse conditions. Despite Laws against Child Labour, many children remain exploited as cheap Labour because the authorities are unable to implement strict laws and actions to guard children. Society and law-makers must eradicate child Labour in India.
In India, children are forced to work illegally in multiple industries. However, Agriculture is the largest sector that employs children to contribute to the family income. Indian rural sectors employ 85 percent of youngsters due to various social factors failing to satisfy their lifestyle.
Despite constitutional provisions to abolish Child Labour, many children remain exploited under hazardous work conditions. Due to paid Labour, children abandon their studies to support their families. They are made to forego all the wonders of childhood by the ruthless world.
Causes of Child Labour
The leading causes of kid Labour in India are social inequality, lack of education, and poverty. According to UNICEF’s report, children from the impoverished and rural parts of the planet haven't any available alternatives like teachers and schools.
Many rural communities lack adequate school facilities and therefore the availability of faculties . The low paying economy blooms with low cost, easy to rent , and child Labour. Besides the unorganized Agricultural sector, child Labour exists in unorganized assembly, unorganized retail works, and unorganized trade sectors.
Other factors of Child Labour include the dimensions of the informal economy, the lack of most Indian industries to proportion , lack of recent technologies, and therefore the structure and inflexibility of the Indian market.
Bonded child Labour
Children are employed due to social obligation, or loans and debts made by the families. Usually, children are forced to use their families in brick kilns, stone and quarries, and agricultural sectors.
The children of the migrant workers and people that belong to the marginalized sections and Dalits within the society are pledged to figure in small production houses and factories in the urban areas. Child Labourers on the bond are usually subjected to physical, emotional, mental, and sexual assault , even resulting in death.
In Orissa, the people of the lower section of the society sell their daughters belonging to eight to 10 years aged , as maidservants to the clear their debts.
Lack of implementation of Laws
The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, was the sole enacted provision by the Indian Constitution against child Labour and its atrocities. Other provisions stated by the Indian Constitution are:
• Article 24 of the Indian Constitution states that no child below the age of fourteen shall employ in any hazardous employment or factory but not in non-hazardous industries.
• Article 39(f)) of the Indian Constitution states that children and young adults are to be protected against moral and material abandonment or any forms of exploitation.
Various other Laws and the Indian Penal Code, such as The Factories Act,1948, The Mines Act,1952, the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) of Children Act-2000, and the Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act-1986 seek to prevent the practice of child Labour in India.
Unfortunately, these laws and regulations lack active and proper implementation and enforcement.